Vaccination is essential to prevent the recurrence of diseases such as polio and measles; Learn about immunization rates in 2024 | health

Vaccination is essential to prevent the recurrence of diseases such as polio and measles;  Learn about immunization rates in 2024 |  health

A health worker vaccinates children in Recife, in a file photo – Photo: Hugo Aquino/Disclosure

In June, Brazil completed two years without cases Measles – The last one was confirmed on June 5, 2022 in Amapa. Thus, it is close to resuming ratification “Measles-free country”a title that was already obtained in 2016, but was lost after the virus returned to national territory.

Another disease that has also been eradicated in Brazil is… poliomyelitis. Add to list rubella, Congenital rubella syndrome And the Neonatal tetanus.

Eliminating the disease is a great achievement for the country. However, to keep it away, it is necessary to protect the population, As the virus continues to spread around the world. like? Vaccination.

“When you can eliminate the disease, You have a large number of people who have been vaccinated, This prevents the virus from spreading, even if a person from abroad enters the country infected with the virus. There is no one to transmit it because everyone has been vaccinated. This is the importance of obtaining high vaccination coverage“, explains pediatrician Renato Kafouri, Vice President of the Brazilian Society for Immunizations (SBIm).

However, The opposite also happens. The fewer vaccinations there are in the country, the more people are susceptible to infection. Results? Diseases that have already been eliminated Are at risk of return.

For example, if a person infected with measles from another country meets an exposed person in Brazil, who is not protected, The virus may spread again and we may have local cases (broadcast nationally).

“When people with measles arrived from Venezuela, they found our population With low coverage then it quickly infects one, infects another and an outbreak occurs. Before this period of low coverage of the disease, we had imported cases, people who came to Brazil with measles who infected one or two people at most, or five at most, Because everyone has been vaccinated“So the outbreak was not activated,” he said.

Restoring vaccination coverage

It was already Brazil The global reference in vaccination. Through the National Immunization Programme, established in 1973, the country has eliminated polio, measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome, and neonatal tetanus.

but, Vaccination coverage has declined since 2015-2016. The numbers have been rising since 2022, but we have not yet reached the number Target 95% (See below what prices will be like in 2024).

“We are working to increase coverage, But this is still not enough. “We need 95% coverage (at least) for the vast majority of vaccines.”

“In 2023, almost all vaccines have appeared Increase more or less 10%. In 2024, we are headed toward slightly better coverage. I don't think we've reached 95%, which is the goal for most vaccines. But we are moving towards better vaccination in the country. This increase The fruit of information, abandoning the undesirable past and investmentsKfoury adds.

Half of the whooping cough cases in the capital have not been fully vaccinated

Why don't people get vaccinated?

“The decline in vaccination coverage is due to several factors, Ranging from access to information, to lack of information, because people don't know, and we think they know, but they don't know [a importância de fazer a vacina]“, says Balalai.

Kfoury mentions a “strange” reason why people do not get vaccinated: The success of the vaccines themselves, Which leads to a loss of awareness of risks among the population.

“As paradoxical as it may seem, the vaccine is a victim in itself. When you feel threatened, you seek prevention. And the success of vaccines in and of itself ends up being a demotivator,” he says.

Experts believe that procedures also need to be customized Focus on local realityMore than just prioritizing immunization campaigns, it is essential Strengthen Routine vaccination. any, No need to wait for the campaign to go into the mail.

“All the vaccines targeted by the campaigns are the ones that are in the clinic and it is important for the family to take them regardless of the campaign or not. The campaigns are working to strive to vaccinate those who have not been vaccinated to increase vaccination coverage,” reinforces Palay.

Includes the national vaccination calendar 20 vaccines protect individuals throughout their life cycle from birth. Among the diseases that can be prevented with these vaccines Polio, measles, rubella and whooping cough.

According to the Ministry of Health's Vaccination Committee, the number of immunized people has exceeded the scope of vaccinations 70% (minus MMR D2) this year, some above 85%, But none of them reached the target 95% Until now. See preliminary data through June 11, 2024.

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