2020, the starting point. Let’s see the situation comparing the two countries on the basis of indicators: population, GDP and per capita GDP.
a Population of India In 2020, it indicates 1.37 billion people and 1.4 billion in China. To get a more accurate idea of their size in the world, the two countries together account for nearly 36% of the population. According to United Nations services projections, India will exceed the population of China in the second half of this decade. Residents (no) will not be a problem.
About the StartReality is more problematic. In 2020 India reached 2,252,197 million euros, while in 2019 China reached 12,809,322 million euros. Thus, India’s GDP is much smaller than that of China, by about 5.7 times, which translates into wealth created by a much smaller population (1648 EUR / year versus 9164 EUR).
Still to think, we note that according to the World Bank, 41.5% of the active population in India lives on agriculture versus 24.7% in China, and 26.7% from the industrial sector versus 39% and 32.3% from services versus 36, 3%. The wealth of the wealthy (1%) in India is more than half of the population. It does not stray too far from the worldwide wealth grabbing pattern.
Some historical and economic data
India gained independence in 1947, two years before the People’s Revolution in China (1949). India’s independence was a long process, with extremely difficult struggles and a large and indeterminate number of deaths. Among the many fights, she was well known in history Ceballos Revolution (1857-1859), considered the first independence movement in India.
It was a popular uprising against British rule by Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the forced conscription of young men into the army of the British East India Company. The survey did not extend to the entire territory, and ended with the execution of the revolutionaries and the extinction of the company.
After this movement, a Viceroy of India was created, and in 1877, Queen Victoria was crowned Empress of India. This process of political-administrative reorganization coincides with the beginning of the deep colonization of India, and has translated into the creation of institutions of the British type, such as mixed colleges, roads, post offices, aristocratic clubs and most importantly, labor insertion. “English LanguageThis contributed, in a way, to a greater unification in a region with more than 200 dialects, a region that has always been the target of great greed by various peoples, due to its natural wealth and the great fertility of its soils.
The colonial penetration of English culture and traditions did not present much resistance because India did not have a central government and the existence of caste, as a factor in the division of society, facilitated this process. The noble classes accepted colonialism well. Certain institutions gave them some prestige.
With colonization, there were two types of India: one under British rule and the other for the Emirates, around 200, run by noble families.
From 1920 onwards, Gandhi and Nehru, lawyers by profession, graduates from English universities, began to lead the independence movement with the support of the Indian bourgeoisie and the Congress Party (formed in 1885, highly educated). In this context, they were arrested several times.
Gandhi Bhatia C. For civil disobedience To the English colonial power and For non-violence. Thus civil disobedience and nonviolence became weapons of rejection and proof for those who fought against English rule.
The United Kingdom, weakened from World War I, lost more power and influence in the world to the United States in World War II. Under these circumstances, there were significant weaknesses in preserving India and trying to negotiate independence.
The environment in India was unstable and conflicting. Several religious rivalries came to illustrate the entire process. On the other hand, two political trends of independence in Indian society have been discussed.
Gandhi called for the creation of a united India and Ali was Jannah fighting for the independent state of Pakistan. The United Kingdom supports the second position. Thus, in 1947, the British recognized India’s independence which was achieved with some disturbances. In short, the English colonial heritage leaves a country divided into two parts: India and Pakistan.
The Indian Federation became governed by Nehru as Prime Minister based on the Congress party and the Hindu majority. He rules over the Muslim-majority paradise of Pakistan. However, in 1948, Gandhi was killed by a radical Hindu element who did not accept to join Hindus and Muslims in the same country.
Nehru, an independence fighter and imprisoned for a few years for the cause, became the Prime Minister of India in 1947 and remained the prime mover of independent government in India until 1964, the year of his death.
The kind of economic development that Nehru undertook was not suitable for the line of Gandhi, who above all defended and redirected investments in agriculture.
On the contrary, Nehru was betting on big industry, economic planning, and state intervention in the economy, as well as some similarities with the Soviet Union. However, he never broke the foundations of capitalism. The companies were not nationalized. However, he practiced a kind of ‘Industrial conditioning“As is, in fact, prevalent in Portugal. Corporate investments were subject to an administrative mandate from the government.
Under Nehru’s rule, the country did not grow 3% per year, Which was confined to a country that started in an underdeveloped and weak situation, although successes were noticeable in areas such as building dams.
Nehru was famous around the world for his policy of non-alignment in the Cold War, being one of the founders and leaders with Nasser, Tito, Sukarno and Nkrama of the Non-Aligned Movement which achieved great global expectations.
With the death of Nirho, his daughter Indira Gandhi came to power almost immediately, establishing the ruling family in power for a long time, through the Congress Party.
Economically, Indira Gandhi follows in his father’s footsteps: the development of a national industry, the defense of non-alignment in the Cold War and the secular state, the main pillars that have marked Nehru’s path since independence. This streak, of course, ended in change with the liberal reversal of the country’s economy in 1990.
We are not in direct response to the title of the article. We carry information for those who have read this and the following writings to draw their own answers. In this, we leave some traces of the development of India that are important to the context, because, in our understanding,Everything surrounds everythingThe independence of the country was undoubtedly a major factor.
Thus, this text ends with a reminder: There are those who argue that the world falls in a period of 200 years in which the “balance” of government shifted to the West.
In fact, between the first year and the year 1820, the two major economies of the world have always been China and India. Many scholars who analyze this period of Western domination of the world see it as a historical anomaly in natural decline. Is it necessarily so ?!
The author writes according to the old spelling.